Final years of Black Freedom 1930 to 1936

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Final years of Black Freedom 1930 to 1936, and here central government is given credit to solving the ‘poor white’ problem, what is reported here, does not fully understand the motivation of the demise of the blacks, or why the central government found it in their interest to switch the poor white, with the African Farmers. Kaalvoet explains his theory below;

Final years of Black Freedom 1930 to 1936  

*It was only in the 1930s, as Afrikaner nationalist politicians under the leadership of D.F. Malan sought to mobilize political support along ethnic lines through the building of new class alliances, that the central government took steps to solve the poor white problem in the rural northern Transvaal.

*In the early 1930s, when depression and drought threatened to overwhelm the farming sector, the government supplied white farmers with cattle feed and financial aid. Similar aid was not extended to African farmers whose ability to market their grain crops was severely impaired by the high mortality amongst draught oxen and donkeys. Most importantly, large-scale government-sponsored land settlement schemes were introduced to relieve the pressure on the overgrazed northern cattle farms.

*But the settlement of poor whites on over 36,000 morgen of irrigable land, particularly along the upper Levubu, required the removal of thousands of African tenant farmers. At the same time tenancy relations started to turn against African squatters as the price of land climbed, from an average of 27s per morgen in 1918 to 34s in 1933 with the government paying as much as 180s for irrigable land on the upper Levubu. As the price of land rose, white farmers decreased the amount of land available to tenants and limited their rights to graze livestock.

*The transformation in the 1930s of a large part of the African peasantry into a landless proletariat was movingly captured by a mission-supported African newspaper published in the Spelonken whose editors remarked in 1932:

*We are gradually being dispossessed of the land which we and our ancestors, from time immemorial, occupied. Daily we see big parties emigrating from their old homes (because the farmer has bought the farms and requires them to work) to places they might live in security and with freedom. But alas! such a place is nowhere! They may perhaps go to the locations but they will experience in the course of time that they are in no better position as the locations are congested and barren of vegetation.

*******

Kaalvoet Theory on the Global Market;

What we see as the global market today, finally took control of the South African market during the period 1930 to 1936.

The origins of what Kaalvoet refers to as the Global Market, alternatively the “Importers and Exporters”, are the wealthy families of the Western Capitalist World.

During the early 15th Century, the world wealth, was dominated by the Asian / Muslim groups, off the Spice trade into Europe, they linked the mineral and animal products and wealth of Africa.

The Age of Discovery was born, the Western Capitalist World, under the banner of Christianity, the ventured to fond access into this wealth, by rounding the Cape, discovering the New World, the Caribbean and Americas in the process.

These investors, importers / exporters, the Dutch East Indies Company, English East Indies Company, accessed the Spice Trade, Silk Trade, and as the New World was developed, these importers / exporters, developed a very lucrative business model, their ships moving Slaves from Africa on one leg of the triangle, then Agricultural Products from the New World, to Europe on the second leg, and then building material and equipment on the third leg of the triangle, from Europe to Africa.

Spice, Silk, Cocaine, Slaves, Ivory, Sugar, Tobacco, Coco-Cola, Cotton, Gold, Diamonds, brought these investors, importers / exporters great wealth, wealth that still resides with them today, plus the control of the production and distribution, of virtually all our consumption requirements.

During the 1870s, land in the Transvaal and OFS, had not been surveyed and then, following the Discovery of Diamonds and Gold, during the 1880s these importers / exporters purchased large tracts of land in these Boer Republics, and they became the wealthy #LandOwners, extracting wealth through rental and sharecropping, or as was commonly referred to as “Kaffir Farming”.

What brought the  Final years of Black Freedom 1930 to 1936, quite simply, the depression, triggered by the collapse of Wall Street, October 1929, which caused the collapse of the New World Agricultural sector, unable to continue the supply of Agricultural Products on the second leg of the Triangle to Europe.

The Importers and Exporters, the Global market, already owned the agricultural land in the Transvaal and OFS, and switched their supply chain for Europe to South Africa.

Agriculture in the USA was mechanised in order that the need to Negro labour was totally excluded, so the importers / exporters already had a biased against the black, added to this, they could not trust the black to produce their business needs, if they did succeed, they would be inclined to sell their crop for a ‘hand full of beads’, or, if they did earn money, they would go and sit under a tree, drinking beer till they were hungry again,

From the back point of view, what now takes place is described above, I repeat:

 *In the early 1930s, when depression and drought threatened to overwhelm the farming sector, the government supplied white farmers with cattle feed and financial aid. Similar aid was not extended to African farmers whose ability to market their grain crops was severely impaired by the high mortality amongst draught oxen and donkeys. Most importantly, large-scale government-sponsored land settlement schemes were introduced to relieve the pressure on the overgrazed northern cattle farms. 

What takes place between 1930 to 1936, is a business model where the importers / exporters are selling off portions of land, without the mineral rights, to young Afrikaners under ‘contract’, funded by the new banking system that bring with it the bond system, compound interest system, financing their equipment, seed, fertiliser, and teaching them to farm.

Kaalvoet Comment on Black Farmer failure since 1994:

Sixty years earlier, black farmers controlled the food chain for the majority of our population, since 1994, it is accepted that the majority of emerging farmers have not been successful.

Why did the Boer, established during 1930 to 1936 succeed? 

The Importer / Exporter, required them for their business interests and for this reason, the ‘contract’ that was entered into with the young Afrikaner farmer, included the importer / exporter purchasing all the crops produced by the Afrikaner farmer, already controlling the railways, the ports, they established ‘co-operative facilities’ in the farming areas, purchased all the produce, exported to best quality, sold the 2nd grade to South African whites, and the lower grades were sold / fed to the blacks.

This ensured the success of the emerging young Afrikaner farmers, a system that should have been introduced to our black emerging farmers in 1994.

Kaalvoet attributes the removal of blacks from their farms, to the importer / exporter, and not the Government, why?

As South Africa’s industry and mining started to develop, slave labour was needed to produce, but more importantly, the importers / exporters, having invested in the young Afrikaner farmer, needed to remove the competition by the black farmer who till 1930, had controlled the cereal market, and ensure profits.

This is what has taken place in Townships and Rural areas as the Global Market has invaded the ‘black economy’.

South Africa’s young Afrikaner farmers success causes the development of the Corn Flake as our must have breakfast: 

As the world slowly recovers from the depression, America agriculture recovers, with South Africa producing maize, the importers ‘ exporters need to find a market for corn, and although WWII takes its toll, the woman entering the workforce, brings opportunity.

After vitamins were discovered, it did not take long before, in the 1940s, breakfast cereals were fortified and heralded as a source of every vitamin under the sun, making breakfast that much more important, according to advertisements at the time.

The cliche that breakfast is the most important meal developed from those early days of cereal.

It was also around that time that women were entering the workforce in droves during the war, and needed something quick yet nutritious to feed the kids in the morning. Maternal guilt was used to market cereal as the best food to give to children, and underline the importance of eating breakfast.

As we enter the 1950s, so the importer / exporter, the global market, controls everything think we eat or drink, all in the interests of their profit.

Kaalvoet has a theory that land reform, is impossible in Africa, but you will need to comment and ask for information, should you wish the theory, before the Reflections on South Africa history gets there.

Cedric de la Harpe

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After #AngloBoerWar bywooner existence

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After #AngloBoerWar bywooner existence, In Consider the Verdict, I have been quoting from -The Emergence of Ethnicity Among the Tsonga-Speakers of South Africa -Patrick Harries, and before I continue, I need Kaalvoet to comment on what is taking place in 1930.

Kaalvoet Comment;

Here I introduce the concept of the Anglicised Afrikaner, and what we will eventually identify as the Anglicised Africanist, those who move into the “Queen’s Court’, to administer the Colony and protect the wealth.

Although it is only 1930, the Afrikaner, National Party, in coalition with the Labour Party,  (Arbeidersparty) was governing the country.

The Arbeidersparty was formed in 1910, the party received support mostly from urban white workers and for most of its existence sought to protect them from competition from black and other non-white workers.

In 1930, as the world depression takes root, the government moves to intervene on the growing poor white problem?

We first look at the government’s attitude, represented by the wealthier Afrikaner and the Arbeidersparty, quoted from the extract below:

*The destruction of northern Transvaal farms by the British during the Anglo-Boer War had pushed increasing numbers of already poor Afrikaans farmers into a marginal existence. In many instances landowners found it more profitable to enter into tenancy relationships with Africans rather than politically more powerful Afrikaner peasants or bywoners. Although large numbers of whites lived in conditions of extreme poverty in the northern Transvaal, they received little sympathy from the government and, considered ‘indolent, lazy and indigent’, were treated as a social rather than an economic problem. 

Kaalvoet will make a comment on the following quote, as we reach 1936, suffice to say that, the Government will during the next few years, be manipulated by the wealth of the world, to remove the blacks from the land, and develop those the considered ‘indolent, lazy, and indigent’ into the powerful Afrikaner Farmers, Boers, that they are today.

But the growth of this African petty bourgeoisie was abruptly truncated in the 1930s as the government intervened in the northern Transvaal to halt the growing poor white problem.

We return to Consider the Verdict and the Erosion of the African

*In evidence given to the Natives Economic Commission of that year, (1930) it was stated that in the northern Transvaal over the previous forty years, ‘. . . [African] marketed produce has increased. This increase is considerably greater than the increase in population. According to another witness, ‘You will find to-day that [the Africans] have raised tens of thousands of bags of Kaffir corn purely for market purposes and the greater portion of that money which they get for their corn is to pay for land and to buy land. But the growth of this African petty bourgeoisie was abruptly truncated in the 1930s as the government intervened in the northern Transvaal to halt the growing poor white problem.

*The destruction of northern Transvaal farms by the British during the Anglo-Boer War had pushed increasing numbers of already poor Afrikaans farmers into a marginal existence. In many instances landowners found it more profitable to enter into tenancy relationships with Africans rather than politically more powerful Afrikaner peasants or bywoners. Although large numbers of whites lived in conditions of extreme poverty in the northern Transvaal, they received little sympathy from the government and, considered ‘indolent, lazy and indigent’, were treated as a social rather than an economic problem.

*The government did however make available a large number of small farms on long lease and with the option of easy purchase in the poorly watered northern districts. But this merely compounded the problem, for by the early 1930s these uneconomic cattle farms had become desperately overgrazed and were occupied by large numbers of settlers subsisting largely on game and maize meal.

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#Initiation must stay and be respected

#Initiation must stay and be respected, this call, supported by the video to the right, is a call to those Western Influenced people, who call for #InitiationMustFall.

INITIATION, essential, any call for #InitiationMustFall is condemned. 

African culture for cultivation of child, from child to adult, part of the Initiation process, the preparation part, the essential part, and Initiation must never fall, it must stay and be respected.

As a white exposed to the initiation process, or rather, the many successes of black adults who have been through the initiation process, I have been to advocate that young whites should be processed through the African culture of ‘child to adult’ development.

A recent call for #InitiationMustFall, caused me to cringe, this call is typical of the Western Culture attack on African Culture and that Culture is archaic, cruel, abusive, and should be changed.

All these calls exclude the all embracing aspects, of part of the condemned culture.

For years I have listened to my black friends describe the process that the entire extended family, participate in, as the cultivate a child, from very young, to adulthood.

Nettie and I are exposed to many rural communities, and we are very aware of the numerous children that are involved in daily chores, and yet, there a numerous children that do not participate.

Then, during a visit to our Zulu Village in 2016, while casually chatting to an elder, we are attracted to a young child, four or five years-old, chasing the goats around the yard.

My first reaction is to suggest to the elder that he should stop him, he continues watching him, and as we relax, we become aware of a slightly older brother, maybe eight years-old, watching, seemingly intent on getting involved in the mischief.

Only when the elder child moves into a position and changes direction of the goats, do we become aware that they are herding the goats.

I use my cell phone to take a few pictures, and watch how the eight year-old allows the four year-old to chase the goats on his own, only getting involved when his assistance was needed.

Then, to our surprise, as the goats are moving into the goat-pen, the eight year-old stands far back, the four year-old continues moving them slowly forward, and then, an older brother, not seen before, moves closer to assist the child, and when complete, he helps to close the gate of the goat-pen.

Not sure what was said between them, but the child walks proudly, a slight smile when he passes us.

These children, even if they are not necessarily scheduled to go to the mountain, would graduate, if ever the decision was made to send them to the mountain.

Any call for #InitiationMustFall, will negatively impact on the traditional cultivation of our children.

Cedric de la Harpe

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The Erosion of the African Position

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The Erosion of the African Position during the period 1902 to 1930.

*As early as the turn of the century, it was noted that African producers in the northern Transvaal annually supplied Pietersburg and Pretoria with ‘thousands of bags’ of grain and that African maize production in the Zoutpansberg exceeded production in other areas of the Transvaal where Africans dominated the cereals market. The local newspapers frequently reported in the following vein:

*The Kafirs grow enormous and increasing quantities of mealies [maize]; quantities so much in excess of their own requirements that the district supplies more of this indispensable article of food for native labourers on the Rand fields than any other part of South Africa.

*African production of cereals for the market was encouraged by both traders and the mines. Nor was the state willing to act against Africans who provided an important source of government revenue; in the years immediately following the Anglo-Boer War the direct taxes paid by northern Transvaal Africans to the government more than quintupled to £140,000

*It is clear that a relatively prosperous, if small, class of African farmers was emerging at the expense of their peers. Evidence for this lies in the purchase of land by individuals who themselves took on rent-paying tenants. In 1911 there were 2000 ‘Shangaans’ living on an African-owned farm in the eastern Transvaal and, five years later, there were some 10,500 Africans living on land held in freehold by Africans in the northern Transvaal. Some of these farmers commanded an annual income of £500 and virtually all had adopted the plough which, together with draught oxen and wagons used for marketing purposes, required a considerable capital investment. Some market-orientated cattle farmers had herds of up to 300 head. Thus by 1930 a number of African farmers had emerged who were able to rent out land and annually market several hundred bags of grain as well as fairly substantial numbers of cattle. 

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What did the white man find when he bought a farm

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What did the white man find when he bought a farm in Transvaal during the early 1900s, other than trees and bushes?

*In purely economic terms it continued to pay Africans to remain independent producers on company or Crown lands. Here they intermittently paid rent and grazing fees, whereas under a labour tenancy relationship the family head or his sons were required to work for three months each year without pay. Many white farmers automatically entered into rent paying tenancies with the residents on their farms for, as one northern Transvaal chief stated, ‘when a white man buys a farm he finds trees, bushes and natives on that farm’. A farmer who did not have the capital needed to exploit his land directly would rent out one section and reserve another part for his labour tenants. The persistence of ‘Kaffir farming’ in the northern Transvaal almost two decades after the passage of the Natives Land Act implies that labour tenancy agreements continued to favour African workers. If the latter felt that the terms of their tenancies were turning against them, they would frequently desert their employers by moving to rented land. They also exercised the more radical alternative of moving on to government land, reserves or mission farms, or of purchasing farms within scheduled areas.

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‘Kaffir farming’ wealthy white landlords use of black

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‘Kaffir farming’ wealthy white landlords use of black farmers, to make profit, changing cash rentals or sharecrop compensation, not only the income, but the black farmer was tilling the soil,

*………………. Between 1908 and 1910 the number of Africans in northern Transvaal locations almost doubled from 52,500 to 101,700; those living on un-surveyed Crown land dropped from 109,000 to 90,000; and those on white-owned land, although still the majority, decreased from 175,800 to 168,000.

*A common African reaction to the anti-squatter laws and the increasingly overcrowded locations was for families to club together and purchase land, initially held in ‘trust’ but after 1905 in freehold. Between 1910 and 1912 Africans in the northern Transvaal purchased more than 16,000 morgen of land worth over £15,000 and by 1913 they held a total of 71,500 morgen in freehold.

*The Natives Land Act of that year was a compromise between mining and landed capitalist interests. It promised on the one hand to extend the rural locations as labour reserves for the mines, while on the other hand it promised, first, to provide farmers with labour, by acting against rent tenancies and, second, to prohibit Africans from owning land outside areas ‘scheduled’ for their occupation. Land bought by a combination of more than six Africans had to be purchased on a tribal basis and held by the Minister of Native Affairs for the tribe concerned. In later years, the term ‘tribe’ became a synonym for African purchasers of land in scheduled areas; as one northern Transvaal attorney stated in 1930, ‘a Tribe is a syndicate of ten to fifteen families which buys land and elects a chief and petty chief. The Land Act also encouraged labour tenancy by proposing a graduated tax, in effect an annually increasing fine, on those landowners who accepted rents from Africans in cash or kind. But this section of the act could not be implemented until sufficient land had been released to cater for those rent paying ‘squatters’ who refused to become labour tenants. For two decades after the Land Act Africans were to retain a precarious hold on their land through the rent tenancy or ‘Kaffir farming’ system.

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Who were wealthy white farmers in Transvaal post Anglo-Boer War

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Who were wealthy white farmers in Transvaal post Anglo-Boer War?

*Following the Anglo-Boer War, demands for the implementation of anti-squatter laws increased as the price of land soared and as the labour needs of wealthy white farmers rose with their transition from stock to arable farming. These farmers were opposed to the existence of government reserves which provided Africans with valuable farm land and which pushed up the cost of farm labour by providing Africans with an independent means of existence. At best, government and private reserves were viewed by white farmers as labour pools for mining capitalists.

*But the British administration in the Transvaal, in its support for mining capital, extended the reserves and made little attempt to evict ‘squatters’ who paid taxes and rents and who sold a considerable amount of both food and labour to the mines. By 1906 in the Spelonken alone there were over 40, 000 Africans living on land that was owned but not occupied by whites.

*In 1908 the first post-war Responsible Government, which represented wealthy farming interests, moved a year after its election to force African peasants into relationships of labour tenancy on white-occupied farms. A bill was tabled in the legislative assembly with the express purpose of removing up to 300,000 squatters throughout the Transvaal. According to the founder of the Swiss mission in the Spelonken this was ‘the most tyrannical law that has ever existed in a Republican [sic ] country, a law that would dismember tribes and clans and disperse thousands of families’.

Kaalvoet Comment:

The wealthy white farmer in the Transvaal after the Anglo-Boer War, were those wealthy families who bought large tracts of land after the discovery of gold, to secure our mineral rights.

As per the pervious blog;

*Absentee landlords, often mining companies prospecting for minerals, were only too willing to encourage the settlement on their lands of Africans who would undertake bush clearance and pay them rent and grazing fees. Many Africans preferred to live on land owned by the state or absentee landlords, where taxes were lower than in the reserves where, if they paid rent, it was in cash rather than labour and where existing forms of social control and production could be maintained. 

Where black farmers were successful, they were welcome to farm on white land, provided they paid their 50% crop share, those who were not farming commercially, were deemed to be squatters, and  the 300 000 removed from the land owned by the wealthy whites.

And this was prior to the 1913 Native Land Act.

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African sharecropper Boer Bywooner 1870 to 1897

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African sharecropper Boer Bywooner 1870 to 1897, we need to reflect on this period, and ask ourselves what our country would have been like if the English Coloniser had not attacked and defeated the Boer.

African sharecropper Boer Bywooner 1870 to 1897

*The undercapitalized, if not impoverished, occupation farmers were unable to raise capital because the terms of their tenancies precluded the mortgaging of their farms, and they typically lived in ‘mud cabins that would disgrace a Connemara squatter or a Skye crofter’. They were broken by the almost continual commando service demanded by a decade of wars mounted by Pretoria against the northern Transvaal chiefdoms. With their capital invested in livestock and without government aid, they were unable to withstand the effects of the extended drought and the Rinderpest epizootic infection of the mid-1890s. Many abandoned their lands and turned to transport-riding, hunting, woodcutting and salt-extraction, although even these traditional resorts of the poor had been made increasingly difficult by government concessions and regulations. In 1896 it was estimated that 29 out of the 30 white families in the Lowveld were starving and had been reduced to living off locusts and honey. The slide of the white community of the northern Transvaal into impoverishment was to continue well into the twentieth century.

*Absentee landlords, often mining companies prospecting for minerals, were only too willing to encourage the settlement on their lands of Africans who would undertake bush clearance and pay them rent and grazing fees. Many Africans preferred to live on land owned by the state or absentee landlords, where taxes were lower than in the reserves where, if they paid rent, it was in cash rather than labour and where existing forms of social control and production could be maintained. 

*Others moved from chief to chief or farm to farm in an attempt to better their living conditions. This meant that white farmers had to compete for labour not only with each other and with land companies but also with chiefs living on state and private land and in the reserves. Because of this competition, the labour extracted by white farmers from their tenants could not exceed the combined monetary value of the rents and taxes paid by tenants living beyond the borders of white-occupied farms. Similarly, because of the private reserves that existed on estates owned by land speculators and the state, white farmers were obliged to reserve large parts of their farms for tenants who paid them rents in both labour and money.

*The Republican anti-squatter laws of 1887 and 1895 were legislated in order to force African tenants off ‘private reserves’ so as to spread the labour more equitably and control competition between white farmers. But these laws had the opposite effect for they caused large numbers of Africans in the north-eastern Transvaal to move into the Zoutpansberg mountains, which remained largely independent of white rule until 1898, or on to the malarial lands of the Lowveld. Until southern Mozambique was finally conquered by the Portuguese in 1897 …

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Africans and the Land the 1870 old Transvaal

Reflections on South Africa history, extracts from Consider the Verdict.

Africans and the Land the 1870 old Transvaal, a look at how the Colonisation Process first used the Black Farmers, and then, sixty years later, would exclude them from the economy;

“Sirs, I have just been requested to read extracts from one of Die Kis documents into evidence before we move onto the Mine topic. We believe it will add impetus to our claim that the Transvaal consisted of a productive community that could have supplied a large portion of the country’s needs.”

Exclusion, Classification and Internal Colonialism:

The Emergence of Ethnicity Among the Tsonga-Speakers of South Africa

Patrick Harries

Africans and the Land

*The ………, such as the Spelonken, Africans could live and grow crops almost wherever they wished, including on white-occupied land. At the end of the 1870s some of the larger white landowners in the Spelonken shared their farms with several thousand Africans. By 1888 it was estimated that some 12, 500 East Coast immigrant families lived on ten white farms in the Spelonken.

*It was only in the late 1880s that white settlers started to arrive in the northern Transvaal in appreciable numbers. These were largely landless bywoners who, in exchange for military service, were provided with small ‘occupation farms’. ……..

*This was so because, as the Witwatersrand gold discoveries pushed up the price of land and drew Africans more deeply into the money economy, landowners started to turn off their estates, bywoners who had been occupying large tracts of land and began to levy direct cash rents from the resident African population.

*Most Tsonga-speakers lived on land that had not been inspected or surveyed for private farms and hence was termed ‘state land’. However, by the end of the nineteenth century, Africans were steadily drifting on to white-owned farms. This movement was encouraged by a discriminatory tax system which penalized Africans living in rural locations or on government land with heavy taxes relative to those living as tenants on white-owned land, while those in active service on white-occupied farms paid least. The sale of state land also caused many Africans to settle on white-owned land. Many were drawn by the fertility and better access to markets of European-owned farms. This movement was facilitated by the large scale sale of occupation farms to land companies and local speculators.

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1913 Native Land Act the black farmers status

Reflections on South Africa history, extracts from Consider the Verdict.

1913 Native Land Act the black farmers status

“During the period 1910 to 1913 the blacks purchased 78 farms, 300 000 ha. and paid 95 000 pounds, triggering another threat of the economic invasion of the white economy, triggering the 1913 Native Land Act.”

“Sirs, thanks to Sol Plaatje writings, extracts submitted in Die Kis, I quote a few comments made during the debate on the motion for the second reading of the 1913 Native Land Bill.”

But if we are to understand what is proposed, we would have to consider the position in the sub-continent under different heads: 

I.  Urban Areas, inhabited by 660,000 whites and 800,000 blacks:
 3,703,935 acres

II. The remaining 298,961,303 acres which the Commission would divide as follows: —

NATIVE AREAS, for the Bantu and such other coloured races as are classed along with them numbering just about 4,000,000 SOULS:
38,626,858 acres or 18,246,451 morgen (SA).

EUROPEAN AREAS, or nearly the whole of Rural South Africa, for the occupation of 660,000 RURAL WHITES (mainly Boers):
260,334,444 acres

“My research surprised me when I discovered that 1,200,000 blacks were living and farming on what we consider ‘white farms’ today. This is twenty-five percent of the black population, and at this stage we only had 1,200,000 whites, 600,000 Afrikaans, 600,000 English and other.”

“By 1913, twenty-five percent of the Afrikaans population were in the urban areas.”

“At this stage the black farmer was earning 100 to 500 pounds per annum, after paying their rent, a few years earlier you could buy a stand in Eloff Street at 5 pounds.”

“The black farmers were the main provider of maize in the country, the Afrikaans farmer considering this crop to be a ‘Kaffir Crop’.”

“After the Frontier War, and the establishment of Transkei, there were 450,000 blacks in the Transkei, and 1,000,000 still in the Eastern Province.”

“In 1913, 300,000 blacks farmed in the Northern Transvaal.”

“In 1913 300,000 blacks farmed in Natal.”

“In 1913, 2.5% of the Orange Free State was under maize, mainly farmed by black share-crop farmers.”

“Members of the Jury, the complainants invite you to read the Sol Plaatje writings, they believe he reflects the circumstances accurately, his reflections are confirmed by other publications, but they will be prepared to entertain other research that counters this evidence, when you have your opportunity.”

******

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