1903 Apartheid installed thanks to the mining industry

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1903 Apartheid installed thanks to the mining industry, following the Anglo-Boer War, the English used many ‘unemployed’ military personnel to install structures of registration of the African Male in the old Transvaal and OFS.

“Then, in 1911, a Labour Act was passed to make it impossible for the blacks, who were considered uncivilised, to do certain work on the mines. Much of this was the joint work of landowners, the mines and industry, manipulating the available labour.”

“Labour recruitment became part of a joint mining and government initiative, as they struggled to establish a system where wages of the labourer was kept to a minimum. By 1903 pass offices existed in all major mining towns with four in Johannesburg. Finger printing was started in Johannesburg and spread to all offices. In 1908, a new office in Driehoek was opened, and all migrants were processed there. When the workers arrived by train from Mozambique, Lesotho, and the Eastern Cape, they were shepherded there, driven in like cattle. Here a ‘senior white official’ through a translator would ask if the worker accepted the terms of the contract, the official’s signature was used as confirmation should there be any dispute later.”

“Sirs, some of you will know, in 1921 two thousand whites were to be retrenched, following the economy down-turn after the world war. The whites believed that they were going to be replaced by blacks, so they protested, causing a war in Johannesburg, where seven thousand government troops reclaimed Johannesburg, and two hundred and fifty died. At this stage the English had no sympathy for the Afrikaner; the leaders of the strike were hanged, with hardly a trial. Strangely these poor whites were very socialist, yet linked to the capitalist by the colour of their skin. In 1924 the Smuts government was removed, mainly by the white unionists who blamed him for being a tool of the big business.”

“Despite all the rhetoric of what the intentions were, on the side the government admitted its intention to ‘counteract the force of economic advantages at present enjoyed by the ‘civilised’ native. Ever since the early 1900s, the manipulation of Land, the usage of Labour on the mines, was driven by the removal of the development being achieved by what they called the ‘civilised native’.”

“The ‘civilised native that was invading the ‘white economy’.”

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Gold Mining Industry we reflect on Labour abuses

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Gold Mining Industry we reflect on Labour abuses, and what Kaalvoet considers as motivation to manipulate governments to legislate, and to control the ‘uncivilised’ African masses.

Mine:

“Members of the Jury, we have heard that twenty-five percent of our black population farmed in 1913, productive, sustainable. The defence says that is crazy.”

“Today we tell you the mining industry used fifty-four percent foreign nationals in their total labour force, just to extract the greatest profits from our minerals. The defence will say that is crazy.”

“During the period from 1909, the new Union of South Africa structures, decide to dispense with the Chinese indentured labourers. To avoid any conflict in the labour market, the mining industry and the government, appoint a government labour recruitment agency, the GNLB as the South African Government Native Labour Broker, for all South African labourers to the mine. By the end of 1910 the total number of Cape workers on the gold mines was approaching one hundred thousand, and the operations of the GNLB had expanded into the heart of the Transkei administration, establishing ten offices in the largest towns of the Transkei after 1908.”

“Historically, through till today, this is the local labour supply, established around the emancipation of the Mfengu.

“They used the Mozambican ‘slave labour’ supply as the vehicle to suppress cost of labour from other areas, bringing Lesotho, a British Protectorate into the loop. Lesotho was a highly productive farming community, till their labour controllers changed them into a cheap labour supply. By 1903, the mining industry employed forty-five thousand labourers, and only fifteen thousand from the Eastern Cape, the rest from Mozambique.

South Africa percentage labour of the total labour force:  33,33%

By 1910, the labour force had reached one hundred and eighty-thousand, of which South Africa provided only forty-thousand, mainly from the Transkei.”

South Africa percentage labour of the total labour force:  22,22%

Gold Mining Industry we reflect on Labour abuses

Kaalvoet Comment:

Until 1902, the Gold Mining Industry used predominantly labour supplied from Mozambique.

I refer you to an earlier post on the Labour Supply, Part 1, please follow into Part 2&3, where we discuss the Coloniser, through the influence of the Gold Mining Industry, to keep wages suppressed.

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Land Dispossession jury please Consider the Verdict

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Land Dispossession jury please Consider the Verdict, 

Kaalvoet Comment:

Dispossession:  The Action of depriving someone on land, property, or other possessions.

Few South African elite, seem to understand the concept of dispossession, we talk about who was in South Africa first, as the rightful owners of the land. Conveniently divide the black groups into Koi, Khoisan, and other blacks, attributing the original occupancy to the Koi and Khoisan, and claim that other blacks came from the North.

We ignore the fact that the Dutch, arrived as the Dutch East Indies Company, a chartered Dutch Company, and that the Netherlands never officially attached South Africa, the English East Indies Company overpowered the Dutch East Indies Company, and took control of their possessions.

What did the Dutch, and what did the English annexe by 1835, and had they in nearly 200 years, achieve fair dispossession of the entire South Africa, and was this dispossession, in the name of every white that would settle in South Africa?

The Portuguese, Italians, Germans, French, Swiss, many of these communities, will be heard to support that the Koisan comment on who beat the white to their possession.

By 1900, in the ‘colonised Africa’ the old Free State and Transvaal, were ZAR Republics, officially in the hands of the Boer.

In the comment below, a quote from the Library of US Congress, by the time the white arrived in the Eastern Frontier, the Nguni densely occupied the Eastern Cape.

The Kaalvoet Comment reflects that none of the ‘control’ structures, by the various Country powers, has any relevance to where our black people were fairly dispossessed, our black people were dispossessed through the 1913 Native Land Act, they should have had the same rights as the white foreigners, the Portuguese, Italians, Germans, French, Swiss, and other groups, to purchase and possess land.

Land Dispossession took place through until the 1990s, and all whites benefitted from this Land Dispossession, if it were not for this land dispossession, as a result of the 1913 Native Land Act, today Rosebank and Sandton, would have been owned by black people, off the Alexandra residential  development, and the Sandton and Rosebank areas, would be Alexandra Extensions 10 to 25.

Let us not say it happened 100 years ago, 200 years ago, 300 years ago, and there is nothing that can be done.

It happened 30 years ago, and there is something that should be done.

Walk the streets of the Townships, talk to the people, and we will find solutions.

Kaalvoet de la Harpe

*******

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From the U.S. Library of Congress:

The British adopted contradictory policies in ruling their newly acquired Cape Colony in the first three decades of the nineteenth century. Having seized the Cape from the VOC in 1795, the British returned the colony to the Dutch government in 1803 when peace had been concluded with the French. In 1806, however, with the beginning of the Napoleonic Wars, the British again took the Cape in order to protect the sea route to their Asian empire. Like the VOC before them, the British tried to keep the costs low and the settlement small. Local officials continued the policy of relying on imported slave labor rather than encouraging European immigration with the latter’s implication of permanent and expanding settlement. They also introduced racially discriminatory legislation to force Khoikhoi and other so-called “free” blacks to work for as little as possible. The Hottentot Code of 1809 required that all Khoikhoi and other free blacks carry passes stating where they lived and who their employers were. Persons without such passes could be forced into employment by white masters.

The British attempted to alleviate the land problems of Boers in the eastern Cape by sending imperial armies against the Xhosa of the Zuurveld (literally, “sour grassland,” the southernmost area of Bantu-speaking settlement, located between the Sundays River and the Great Fish River). They attacked the Xhosa from 1799 to 1803, from 1811 to 1812, and again from 1818 to 1819, when at last, through ruthless warfare, they succeeded in expelling the Africans into the area north of the Great Fish River. Thereafter, the British sought to create a fixed frontier by settling 5,000 British-assisted immigrants on smallholder farms created out of land seized from the Xhosa south of the Great Fish River and by clearing all lands between the Great Fish River and the Keiskama River of all forms of African settlement.

But other policies and developments worked against these measures. In 1807 Parliament in London ordered an end to British participation in the slave trade everywhere in the world. This decision threatened the basis of the Cape’s labor supply, for farmers in the eastern areas as well as in the west.

British missionaries, who were active in South Africa for the first time in the 1810s and who had a sympathetic audience in Britain, condemned the cruel labor practices often adopted by Trekboers against their slave and Khoikhoi workers and decried the discriminatory provisions of the Hottentot Code. Although British officials did not rescind the legislation, they did respond to this criticism by establishing a circuit court to monitor conditions in the western Cape. This court offended many Boer sensibilities by giving equal weight to the evidence of “servants” and “masters,” black and white alike. The British also raised a force of colonial police, including Khoikhoi regulars, to enforce the court’s authority. In 1815 a Dutch-speaking Afrikaner farmer who refused to answer a court summons for mistreating a Khoikhoi employee was shot dead while resisting arrest. Relatives and neighbors rose in what became known as the Slachter’s Nek Rebellion, but their resistance was soon crushed, and the British hanged five of the rebels.

British policies on the eastern frontier also engendered growing Boer hostility. The attempt to close the frontier in 1819-20 following the defeat of the Xhosa and the importation of British immigrants only exacerbated land shortages. British settlers found that they could not make a living from small farms, and they competed with the Dutch pastoralists for the limited arable land available, thereby intensifying Boer-British tensions.

The British government, acting largely at the behest of the missionaries and their supporters in Britain in the 1820s, abolished the Hottentot Code. Ordinance 50 of 1828 stated that no Khoikhoi or free black had to carry a pass or could be forced to enter a labor contract. Five years later, the British Parliament decreed that slavery would no longer be permitted in any part of the empire. After a four-year period of “apprenticeship,” all slaves would become free persons, able, because of Ordinance 50, to sell their labor for whatever the market would bear. Moreover, slaveowners were to receive no more than one-third of the value of their slaves in official compensation for the loss of this property. The Boers felt further threatened when, in 1834 and 1835, British forces, attempting to put a final stop to Boer-Xhosa frontier conflict, swept across the Keiskama River into Xhosa territory and annexed all the land up to the Keiskama River for white settlement. In 1836, however, the British government, partly in response to missionary criticism of the invasion, returned the newly annexed lands to the Xhosa and sought a peace treaty with their chiefs.

 

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After #AngloBoerWar bywooner existence

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After #AngloBoerWar bywooner existence, In Consider the Verdict, I have been quoting from -The Emergence of Ethnicity Among the Tsonga-Speakers of South Africa -Patrick Harries, and before I continue, I need Kaalvoet to comment on what is taking place in 1930.

Kaalvoet Comment;

Here I introduce the concept of the Anglicised Afrikaner, and what we will eventually identify as the Anglicised Africanist, those who move into the “Queen’s Court’, to administer the Colony and protect the wealth.

Although it is only 1930, the Afrikaner, National Party, in coalition with the Labour Party,  (Arbeidersparty) was governing the country.

The Arbeidersparty was formed in 1910, the party received support mostly from urban white workers and for most of its existence sought to protect them from competition from black and other non-white workers.

In 1930, as the world depression takes root, the government moves to intervene on the growing poor white problem?

We first look at the government’s attitude, represented by the wealthier Afrikaner and the Arbeidersparty, quoted from the extract below:

*The destruction of northern Transvaal farms by the British during the Anglo-Boer War had pushed increasing numbers of already poor Afrikaans farmers into a marginal existence. In many instances landowners found it more profitable to enter into tenancy relationships with Africans rather than politically more powerful Afrikaner peasants or bywoners. Although large numbers of whites lived in conditions of extreme poverty in the northern Transvaal, they received little sympathy from the government and, considered ‘indolent, lazy and indigent’, were treated as a social rather than an economic problem. 

Kaalvoet will make a comment on the following quote, as we reach 1936, suffice to say that, the Government will during the next few years, be manipulated by the wealth of the world, to remove the blacks from the land, and develop those the considered ‘indolent, lazy, and indigent’ into the powerful Afrikaner Farmers, Boers, that they are today.

But the growth of this African petty bourgeoisie was abruptly truncated in the 1930s as the government intervened in the northern Transvaal to halt the growing poor white problem.

We return to Consider the Verdict and the Erosion of the African

*In evidence given to the Natives Economic Commission of that year, (1930) it was stated that in the northern Transvaal over the previous forty years, ‘. . . [African] marketed produce has increased. This increase is considerably greater than the increase in population. According to another witness, ‘You will find to-day that [the Africans] have raised tens of thousands of bags of Kaffir corn purely for market purposes and the greater portion of that money which they get for their corn is to pay for land and to buy land. But the growth of this African petty bourgeoisie was abruptly truncated in the 1930s as the government intervened in the northern Transvaal to halt the growing poor white problem.

*The destruction of northern Transvaal farms by the British during the Anglo-Boer War had pushed increasing numbers of already poor Afrikaans farmers into a marginal existence. In many instances landowners found it more profitable to enter into tenancy relationships with Africans rather than politically more powerful Afrikaner peasants or bywoners. Although large numbers of whites lived in conditions of extreme poverty in the northern Transvaal, they received little sympathy from the government and, considered ‘indolent, lazy and indigent’, were treated as a social rather than an economic problem.

*The government did however make available a large number of small farms on long lease and with the option of easy purchase in the poorly watered northern districts. But this merely compounded the problem, for by the early 1930s these uneconomic cattle farms had become desperately overgrazed and were occupied by large numbers of settlers subsisting largely on game and maize meal.

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Who were wealthy white farmers in Transvaal post Anglo-Boer War

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Who were wealthy white farmers in Transvaal post Anglo-Boer War?

*Following the Anglo-Boer War, demands for the implementation of anti-squatter laws increased as the price of land soared and as the labour needs of wealthy white farmers rose with their transition from stock to arable farming. These farmers were opposed to the existence of government reserves which provided Africans with valuable farm land and which pushed up the cost of farm labour by providing Africans with an independent means of existence. At best, government and private reserves were viewed by white farmers as labour pools for mining capitalists.

*But the British administration in the Transvaal, in its support for mining capital, extended the reserves and made little attempt to evict ‘squatters’ who paid taxes and rents and who sold a considerable amount of both food and labour to the mines. By 1906 in the Spelonken alone there were over 40, 000 Africans living on land that was owned but not occupied by whites.

*In 1908 the first post-war Responsible Government, which represented wealthy farming interests, moved a year after its election to force African peasants into relationships of labour tenancy on white-occupied farms. A bill was tabled in the legislative assembly with the express purpose of removing up to 300,000 squatters throughout the Transvaal. According to the founder of the Swiss mission in the Spelonken this was ‘the most tyrannical law that has ever existed in a Republican [sic ] country, a law that would dismember tribes and clans and disperse thousands of families’.

Kaalvoet Comment:

The wealthy white farmer in the Transvaal after the Anglo-Boer War, were those wealthy families who bought large tracts of land after the discovery of gold, to secure our mineral rights.

As per the pervious blog;

*Absentee landlords, often mining companies prospecting for minerals, were only too willing to encourage the settlement on their lands of Africans who would undertake bush clearance and pay them rent and grazing fees. Many Africans preferred to live on land owned by the state or absentee landlords, where taxes were lower than in the reserves where, if they paid rent, it was in cash rather than labour and where existing forms of social control and production could be maintained. 

Where black farmers were successful, they were welcome to farm on white land, provided they paid their 50% crop share, those who were not farming commercially, were deemed to be squatters, and  the 300 000 removed from the land owned by the wealthy whites.

And this was prior to the 1913 Native Land Act.

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Africans and the Land the 1870 old Transvaal

Reflections on South Africa history, extracts from Consider the Verdict.

Africans and the Land the 1870 old Transvaal, a look at how the Colonisation Process first used the Black Farmers, and then, sixty years later, would exclude them from the economy;

“Sirs, I have just been requested to read extracts from one of Die Kis documents into evidence before we move onto the Mine topic. We believe it will add impetus to our claim that the Transvaal consisted of a productive community that could have supplied a large portion of the country’s needs.”

Exclusion, Classification and Internal Colonialism:

The Emergence of Ethnicity Among the Tsonga-Speakers of South Africa

Patrick Harries

Africans and the Land

*The ………, such as the Spelonken, Africans could live and grow crops almost wherever they wished, including on white-occupied land. At the end of the 1870s some of the larger white landowners in the Spelonken shared their farms with several thousand Africans. By 1888 it was estimated that some 12, 500 East Coast immigrant families lived on ten white farms in the Spelonken.

*It was only in the late 1880s that white settlers started to arrive in the northern Transvaal in appreciable numbers. These were largely landless bywoners who, in exchange for military service, were provided with small ‘occupation farms’. ……..

*This was so because, as the Witwatersrand gold discoveries pushed up the price of land and drew Africans more deeply into the money economy, landowners started to turn off their estates, bywoners who had been occupying large tracts of land and began to levy direct cash rents from the resident African population.

*Most Tsonga-speakers lived on land that had not been inspected or surveyed for private farms and hence was termed ‘state land’. However, by the end of the nineteenth century, Africans were steadily drifting on to white-owned farms. This movement was encouraged by a discriminatory tax system which penalized Africans living in rural locations or on government land with heavy taxes relative to those living as tenants on white-owned land, while those in active service on white-occupied farms paid least. The sale of state land also caused many Africans to settle on white-owned land. Many were drawn by the fertility and better access to markets of European-owned farms. This movement was facilitated by the large scale sale of occupation farms to land companies and local speculators.

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Stolen Land and Land Reform is it possible

Reflections on South Africa history, extracts from Consider the Verdict.

Stolen Land and Land Reform is it possible, this blog looks at the involvement of the African in agriculture pre 1936, and the Afrikaner / Boer, establishment as the power that they are today.

Land

“Sirs, the complainants would like us to believe that they were the population that fed the nation in 1913. Today, this claim sounds crazy, giving our perceptions of the inability of the black person to achieve.”

“In 2013, when I was first introduced to the complainants’ questions around their economic segregation through the removal of them from their land, I was referred to ‘MAIZE, a TEXT-BOOK’.”

“Members of the Jury, the Maize Book, (1914) clearly indicates the influence to develop our Maize Crop as an export crop, aimed at encouraging the white farmer to start planting maize, and every effort is made to convince them that it is not a Kaffir Crop, and that they can make money.”

“We include a web link to the archive material. The complainants, acknowledging their bias, have asked me to quote from this book, reading it into evidence.”

“Between 1910 and 1914, the system wrote a book, MAIZE, a TEXT-BOOK, aimed at encouraging the Boer to start planting Maize, A few relevant pages are included in Die Kis.”

https://archive.org/stream/maizeitshistoryc00burt#page/808/mode/2up

Chapter 1, Page 2.

Maize is one of the easiest crops to grow, standing more rough usage than perhaps any other; a favourite Kaffir method of planting is to scatter the seed broadcast over the unbroken veldt and then plough the ground; even with this crude treatment crops of 1,5 to 2 muids of grain per acre obtained.

Chapter 1, Page 3-4

We still hear South African farmers say that maize is a Kaffir crop, and that maize-growing does not pay the more ambitious white farmer. We hope to show in the following pages that, except where abnormal economic or unfavourable climatic conditions prevail, this is not the case when the crop is grown properly.

What the American Farmer Thinks of It. – In view of the fact that the United States produces 820,000,000 muids of maize per annum – three quarters of the world’s crop, and that this is not grown with cheap “native” labour, it may be well to look for a moment at the attitude of the American farmers towards the maize crop.

In the United States it is a common saying that “Corn is King”. “Corn” in America is maize.

Chapter 1, Page 5.

Maize is a White Man’s Crop. – Maize is essentially a white man’s crop, and Prof. Carver (1) doubts whether it “could be grown at all, as it is grown in the Corn-belt, if dependence had to be placed upon Negro labour”. The labour employed in that part of the country is entirely white, earning about £5 per month and board the year round. Yet ……….

Chapter 1, Page 7.

Future Possibilities of Development in South Africa, – European corn brokers have recently referred to South Africa as the future maize granary of Europe. Maize will always be the staple cash crop of South Africa. As its value for stock food becomes better appreciated, the local demand will increase, and in this connection Earl Grey’s recent prophecy of a shortage in the world’s beef supply is suggestive. At the present time the country has only begun to show that it is possible to produce good maize. The traveller is impressed with the enormous areas of fertile land, suitable for growing maize, which are at present untouched by the plough, virgin sod like the American prairies. ………..

“Sirs, driving this initiative is the Export market and the perceived unreliability of our black farmers.”

“Sirs, this book was published in 1914, it would have been prepared before 1913, nowhere in this publication do the writers allow for black participation in the agricultural economy, even though the 1913 Native Land Act was only just promulgated.”

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Labour supply part 3 reflections on South Africa History

Reflections on South Africa history, extracts from Consider the Verdict.

Labour supply part 3 reflections on South Africa History, the Gold Mining Industry extracts wealth from South Africa, through exclusion, creating migrant labour supply, and suppresses the value of the black person.

Labour Supply part 3.

“Let us just divert to why I accuse the mines of using controlled slave labour to ensure profits.”

“During 1921, the daily mine wage was 26.1 penny per shift.”

“During 1930, the daily mine wage was 25.7 penny per shift.”

“During 1936, the daily mine wage was 27.0 penny per shift.”

“Over fifteen years, the annual wage increased from £30.08.00 per annum, to £31.12.00s per annum, an increase of 4.160%, or 0,027% per annum.”

“The Municipalities in Transvaal, Orange Free State, and Natal were paying £32.10.00, only 4% more than the mines.”

“Using the cheapest labour that could be sourced in Southern and Central Africa, the mining industry and their investors not only exploited the mineral wealth of the country, but, through the lack of allowing open, free participation, they have severely impacted on our still disadvantaged communities in 2015.”

“The English, through their colonisation process, achieved their local South African labour supply, through the emancipation of the Mfengu, May 14, 1835. Were they slaves, or were they just controlled? Whichever, they became the profit base. Why did we not develop a labour supply from the Transvaal area?”

“Punishment, and the threat of extermination, shaped our nation; how many of our indigenous people died during protests, and how many of the ‘shooters’ were tried, how many of the ‘shooters’ controllers were ever tried?”

“None, because the world accepts that a certain class of people are allowed to die, if they do not listen.”

“Sirs, our local labour supply was considered too expensive for the profits that the mining investors and shareholders wish to achieve. So we elected to bring labour supplies in through foreign nationals, at the expense of the income that our local labour could have accumulated, off what was ‘their’ mineral wealth.”

“Sirs, how does this economic segregation impact on our still disadvantaged community today, how does this economic apartheid impact on our ‘white’ economy today?”

“Sirs, fifty-four percent of the gold mining industry labour supply originated from outside South Africa, imagine a South Africa where this economic segregation did not take place, where our Governments did not allow it; this is ‘grand theft economy’.

*******

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Labour supply part 2 Reflections on South Africa History

Reflections on South Africa history, extracts from Consider the Verdict.

Labour supply part 2 reflections on South Africa history, shows that the South African black labourer, valued himself nearly 3 times more than the white labourers in England.

Labour Supply part 2.

“John Dunn the Zulu Chief, was supplying the white farmers with Mozambican indentured labourers on the Sugar farms before the ‘Coolies’ were brought in. Why would the Mozambican work on a Sugar farm, if a South African did not want to, is the question that we should ask, that we should answer?”

“The local clans, the local families, had a structure where the father would send his son off to provide work, whether for the light-skins, or another clan. This labour supply was charged at the value of the son’s labour, to what the family could achieve, whether through the family activity, or provided into the other economic activities.”

“In the 1800s, our capitalist society made a decision that our black labour supply was too expensive, we could achieve greater profits but importing controlled labour, ‘slave labour’, and in the generating of profits, we excluded the majority of our black population from the economy.”

“Crazy?”

“No.”

“During the 1870s, according to Lieutenant Cunynghame, in his book, ‘My Command in South Africa’, our labour were charging 7 shillings per day for their labour, our woman 5 shillings per day.”

“According to Cunynghame, in Suffolk, a white labourer would be locked out if he even thought about asking for more than 13 shillings per week. The 7 shillings per day rate would be about £6 pound per month, £72 per annum.”

“The indentured Indian labour was only paid £2 per month, £24 per annum. This was far more than they were able to earn in India, so there was no shortage of supply.”

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Labour supply part 1 reflection on South Africa History

Reflections on South Africa history, extracts from Consider the Verdict.

Labour supply part 1 reflection on South Africa History, a look at how economics benefitted from the abolishment of the slave trade.

Labour Supply part 1.

“Members of the Jury, ‘Economics 101’ teaches us that your employee is the asset to treasure.  Hidden in that economic concept is the cost of your employee, how hard you can make them work, how productive they are, how much profit you can make per cost of labour.”

“Since early 1990, as the political changes came into our country, and we seem to discover that our labour is no longer ‘as productive’ as we would like. I have written pages attributing this to lack of Key Social Skills, including ‘entitlement attitude’, we hear that our labour laws are too lenient, so foreign nationals seem to find preference.”

“Sirs, the white capitalist economy is responsible, it did not integrate our local indigenous clans, a nation of entrepreneurs, a nation that was sustainable when we arrived.”

“From our earliest arrival, we introduced the concept that the Khoikhoi and San did not want to work for the light-skins; we ignore the fact that those locals that they came into contact with were already participating in the economy that they boats brought to our country.

“Slaves, as any asset, was easily saleable, but more importantly, controllable. Controllable through the punishment that could be meted out, from lashing to death, a norm accepted internationally.”

“During the 1830s slavery was abolished, abolished in the interests of profits, wealth. We discovered that it was more profitable to provide the slave with a fenced off area, and require them to provide for their own accommodation and food requirements.”

“We discovered that it was more profitable to contract ‘virtual slaves’ from other slave masters, like the Portuguese, or to bring indentured labour in from other poverty areas, like China and India, rather than use the labour resources, that were locally available.”

“The Portuguese control over their labour supply in South Africa stimulated the establishment of a local ‘controlled labour supply’ in the Eastern Frontier, first to build roads and Government buildings, but following the discovery of minerals, to generate profits for the mining investors.”

******

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